By the s, Dumont was the leader of a group of hunters living in the Fort Carlton area.
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In , he took advantage of the growing traffic on the Carlton trail and opened a ferry across the South Saskatchewan River and a small store upstream from Batoche. His leadership role in the South Branch community continued. In and , Dumont chaired meetings which drew up petitions to the federal government asking for representation on the Territorial Council, farming assistance, schools, land grants, and title to already occupied lands.
The Canadian militia, however, proved too large and too well equipped for Dumont's army, which collapsed on 12 May after a four day battle near Batoche. Combet, trans. Research Questions and Chapter Overview My primary research question asks— who was Gabriel Dumont and how should he be remembered? How did he influence his local community? Chapters 2: Diplomacy - analyzes key diplomatic events in which Dumont, along with other Dumont family members, played diplomatic roles. Dumont also participated in other diplomatic events, including the negotiations of Treaty 6 Laurent de Grandin Scholarship on Dumont's life tends to mention such participation, but often only in a cursory way.
In reality, Dumont held significant positions of power within the community. Laurent governmental structure reflected a Euro-Canadian model, and was the result of a deep-rooted buffalo hunt system of governance. This adaptation of the buffalo-hunt governance to the newly established settlement of St. Methodology: This project is part of a larger effort to decolonize North American history.
New Biography is recognized as a form of effective decolonizing methodology as the historian connects and contextualizes the individual to larger societal trends. London: Zed Books, , 3. Though occasionally authors have given a nod to his intelligence, it is always within his military prowess and the narrative of the Resistance.
It was through this period of transformation that Dumont became a voice for his community. He was heavily involved as a leader of the buffalo hunt, and then became a founding member of the St. Laurent community. Through a biographical lens, I will explore not only Dumont, but also the larger aspects of kinship, diplomacy, and community. However, he still focuses upon Dumont in the Resistance narrative, focusing on the Resistance for the majority of the monograph.
Edmonton: Hurtig, Sources This thesis is based primarily on archival research. Chapter one relies on the genealogical records found in the Charles Denney fonds, George Burtenshaw fonds as well as the Gail Morin database at the Glenbow Archives. Chapter two and its exploration of the Treaty with the Dakota Sioux uses an obscure oral history that was recorded by Gregoire Monette, the grandson of Jean-Baptiste Wilkie. Chapter three focuses on the written histories surrounding the establishment of St.
Laurent de Grandin.
This French source has rarely been used, as scholars tend to focus on St. Laurent minimally when investigating the events leading to the Resistance. To date, this rich collection has only been used by in a superficial exploration while covering the events leading to the Resistance such as the two pages devoted to the petitions and their response by Beal and Macleod.
To signify greater movements that extend beyond communities or borders I will use the term Indigenous. Jean-Baptiste Dumont, like many other fur traders, became intimately involved with his Indigenous neighbours creating economic and personal relationships. This chapter outlines the ancestral legacy of Jean-Baptiste and Josephte, tracing and connecting the ties between systems of kinship and leadership. However, records compiled by genealogists, based on Hudson Bay Company records as well as the Oblate archives, tell us he met and married Josephte Josette Sarcisse60— a Sarcee woman.
Josephte had already been living with a man named Bruneau and had one child when she began a relationship with Jean-Baptiste. The fur trade was dependent on these relationships with the local First Nations and many marriages resulted between these two groups, forging alliances and creating kinship ties. When possible I will give the several versions in first use in brackets and then continue with one version of spelling. They spent the majority of their lives camping, hunting, and raising their family amongst other relatives.
In Jean-Baptiste was laid to rest in the prairie plains. With his passing, Josephte moved eastward to St. Boniface near Winnipeg, Manitoba with one of her daughters in the s and stayed there until her death. This Cree word demonstrates much more than a relationship but a worldview based on familial connectedness conveying the virtues that an individual should personify as a family member. Thus, the relationships forged within this first generation highlights the beginning of wahkootwin practices within the Dumont family. Second Generation Most of the Dumont children remained in the territory of their youth, while the oldest son — Nampesh — decided to move farther west as a young teenager.
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This may imply that the boys born to the family maintained connections and identity with the Sarcee side of their family and more so than the women. These popular posts essentially marked the end of the fur trade line, and approximately nine Aboriginal groups used the two posts for trade.
Anne near Edmonton, Alberta. Lac Ste. Anne at that time. Some accounts say that there were six children, with the eldest born before near Edmonton. It is also possible that the eldest son was adopted or the biological son of only one of the parents, especially since records indicate that Suzanne was involved with another man, Francis Bouvette, previously. By with the Indian Act, these marriages were accepted as marriages by the Canadian Government and treated as such- disallowing divorce in the eyes of the Government.
Barkwell, Lawrence J. Anne, the increase in numbers bringing safety to the hunting brigades. Anne was a large community. Ekapow was also seen as a leader in the communities in which he lived. In addition, they had Joseph b. For several years, from approximately through , the family settled east near Red River and worked at farming and selling pemmican. By , Ekapow and Louise had broken and ploughed three acres of land; growing potatoes and barley, as well as raising horses and their six children. They had a small house with a stable, five horses three stallions and two mares , two calves, one harrow and a canoe to fish out of.
In addition, they owned four river carts. As chief Ekapow led the hunters, Welsh recalls that Ekapow appointed four men to get up early and go scouting for the buffalo, directing themselves north-east, south-east, south-west and north-west. The scouts returned that evening, with three reporting no signs of buffalo, while Welsh on the other hand, had run into an older bull. The council, led by the hunt chief, worked as a unit to ensure that the hunt would be safe and successful. Ekapow maintained his leadership role throughout most of his life, working with, and at times against, the colonial powers such as the HBC.
Many accounts have the two brothers, and their families together at key events such as the signing of Treaty Six.
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Ska-kas-ta-ow held the position of president of the St. Records indicate, for instance, that both were present during a pipe ceremony in the early s. This ceremony confirmed a trade treaty with the Blackfoot with whom they would then trade and participate with in the Buffalo hunt. Despite the distances between the three brothers, they continued to stay in contact and work together. Nampesh was known as a guide, and he had crossed the Rockies many times.
In addition, while he was chief of Lac Ste. Anne, Nampesh was asked to lead the Palliser Expedition in The goal was to survey the prairies and what would become Western Canada; identifying potential railway routes and plants. Nampesh, along with his brothers, were hired to guide the Expedition through the Rockies. Though Ekapow and Ska-kas-ta-ow did not live with Nampesh at the time, they travelled to join him for the expedition.
This illustrates a connection and family support structure that remained despite the miles between them. Interestingly, Nampesh did not want to be involved in the expedition at first.
The men hired for the expedition were nervous, and insisted that they needed guns and good ammunition for protection. Nonetheless, Palliser filled his field notes with comments regarding warfare in the area. Also credited to Nampesh was providing valuable information about the areas to be surveyed in the second season regarding the Mountains and areas to the south. Anne and St. Laurent, but they also became highly regarded guides and diplomats to foreigners. Marriage 86 Spry, The Palliser Expedition, Eyre and W.
This allowed Jean-Baptise to straddle both Indigenous and non- Indigenous worlds and would at times create tensions between the two. Intermarriage between groups was commonly practiced between Indigenous groups. The couple would produce eight surviving children: Isidore , Pelagie , Gabriel , Joseph , Xavier ? This family created several marriage connections to the Dumont family.
The marriage of brother and sister to sister and brother exemplifies the ideal cross-over marriage system, following Cree and Dene patterns of marriage, resulting in close relationships between the families and combining the families hunting areas. Two brothers marrying two sisters from another family was seen as an ideal situation. Similar familial strategies are evident in the family of Joseph Dumont b. Joseph, whose grandfather was Ekapow and his parents were Isidore and Judith Parenteau Dumont, would marry back again into the Laframboise family with his marriage to Marie Rose Laframboise.
Gabriel married Madeleine Wilkie in when Gabriel was twenty-one.
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